Tim Rahschulte, Ph. D.
Associate Professor of Business
Professional Profile & Summary
Tim Rahschulte has two decades of professional experience in for-profit and non-profit organizations. He stared his business career in corporate finance. As a treasury analyst for a $3 billion company, he successfully managed dozens of bond indentures and average daily investments of $200 million. Later, he went into consulting, which led him into teaching and working for the government where he served as a principal executive manager and business transition architect responsible for leading state-wide change initiatives. Tim established project management offices for a number of government agencies, created the State of Oregon’s Process Center of Excellence’s Project Management Community of Practice, and helped governor transition teams. In 2007, Tim joined George Fox University’s School of Business as an assistant professor of business and in 2010 was promoted to associate professor. He has and continues to design and teach a variety of courses in the Doctor of Business Administration program and the Master of Business Administration programs. Tim also serves as partner and executive director in his own consultancy.
- Ph.D. Organizational Leadership & Human Resource Development, Regnet University
- M.B.A., thomas More College
- B.A. Ecopnomics and Business Administration, Thomas More College
Awards & Honors
- George Fox University Faculty Achievement Award for Teaching (2010-11 nominee)
- Canadian PM Book Award - Technical Competence (2010)
- Regent University Outstanding Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership (2008)
- George Fox University faculty member of the year (2007-08 nominee)
- Oxford's Autonomous Learning World Caucus Award for Excellence (2006)
- Editorial Board Member, IGI Global (2011)
- International Leadership Association Annual Global Conference panelist (2008, 2009)
- Leadership Advisory Board Member, ForTheNext (2007-2009)
- Luther Rice University Leadership Symposium panelist (2008)
- Reviewer of abstracts and papers, Higher Ground Leadership Summit (2008)
- Editorial Reviewer, Oregon DHS 'This I Believe' leadership program (2007, 2008)
Academic Committees (George Fox University)
Innovation Committee Assessment Committee MBA Policy & Admissions Committee
|Leading global teams||Organizational Leadership||Organizational change management|
|Performance Measures||Knowledge management||Human resource development|
|Effective pedagogy||International business||Biblical perspectives of leadership|
Publications: Books & Book Chapters
- Christopian, F., & Rahschulte, T. (in press). Cultural constructs: The necessary elements for effective knowledge management. In M. Rao (Ed.), Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
- Martinelli, R., Rahschulte, T., & Waddell, J. (2011). Globalization: History repeats. In K. Milhauser (Ed.), Distributed team collaboration in organizations: Emerging tools and practices (pp. 1-14). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
- Rahschulte, T. (2011). The evolution of collaborative work. In K. Milhauser (Ed.), Distributed team collaboration in organizations: Emerging tools and practices (pp. 15-31). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
- Rahschulte, T., & Steele, J. (2011). Creating the environment for high performing distributed teams: Human resource strategies and practices. In K. Milhauser (Ed.), Distributed team collaboration in organizations: Emerging tools and practices (pp. 264-278). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
- Martinell, R., Rahschulte, T., & Waddell, J. M. (2010). Leading global project teams: The new leadership challenge. Oshawa, ON: Multi-Media Publications, Inc.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008). Understanding how to change: An inductive determination of how agents of state government plan, lead, and sustain change (Doctoral dissertation, Regent University, 2008). Dissertation Abstract International. (UMI No. 3292254)
Publications: Academic Journal Articles
- Harlan, E., & Rahschulte, T. (2011). Hisotry of globalization. Insights to a Changing World Journal, 2.
- Harlan, E., & Rahschulte, T. (2011). Opportunities, risks, and challenges of the BRICs. Business Journal for Entrepreneurs, 2.
- Martinelli, R., Rahschulte, T., & Waddell, J. (2010). Back to basics for global project team leaders. Projects & Profits, 110.
- Milhauser, K., & Rahschulte, T. (2010). Meeting the needs of global companies through improved international business curriculum. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 21(2), 78-100.
- Gorlorwulu, J., & Rahschulte, T. (2010). Organizing for transformational development: What are the leadership and organizational requirements? Transformation, 27(3), 199-208.
- Christopian, F. D., & Rahschulte, T. (2009). A qualitative inquiry into organizational culture’s moderating affect on the use and success of knowledge management projects in the aerospace and defense industry. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, 3(3/4), 351-363.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009). Virtues for leading change. The Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1(1), 15-24.
- Rahschulte, T., & Hartsfield, M. (2008). Navigating complexity: Inductively determining how government business in the United States plans, leads, and sustains change. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture, and Change Management, 8(4), 1-10.
- Mensch, K., & Rahschulte, T. (2008). Military leader development: A matter of learner autonomy. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(3), 263-272.
- Longbotham, G., & Rahschulte, T. (2008). From corporate know-how to corporate networks. Effective Executive, 11(6), 10-12.
- Rahschulte, T. (2006). Strategic HRD: Facilitating organizational change through individual performance. International Academy of Business and Public Administration, 3(1), 1191-1204.
Publications: Popular Press Magazines & Trade Journals
- Martinelli, R., Waddell, J., & Rahschulte, T. (2009). Using program management to achieve global product and service development success. PM World Today, 11(1), 1-8.
- Rahschulte, T., & Sepich, D. (2009). Educating entrepreneurs: A realistic approach in a complex world. CDTLink, 13(1), 4-16.
- Rahschulte, T., & Sepich, D. (2008). Building classroom culture through effective facilitation. CDTLink, 12(1), 1-11.
- Rahschulte, T., & Lilly, M. (2004). 10 unbreakable rules for project success (Part 1). Gantthead Magazine. http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=208820&authenticated=1
- Rahschulte, T., & Lilly, M. (2004). 10 unbreakable rules for project success (Part 2). Gantthead Magazine. http://www.gantthead.com/content/articles/208825.cfm
- Rahschulte, T. (2003). On scope – loose change. Projects@Work. http://www.projectsatwork.com/article.cfm?ID=217467&authenticated=1
- Rahschulte, T. (2003). Time management. Gantthead Magazine. http://www.gantthead.com/content/articles/217629.
- Rahschulte, T. (2003). Case in point: Maximizing connectivity with kiosk technology. Government@Work: A State of Oregon Employment Department publication. http://www9.emp.state.or.us/kiosks/documents/kiosk_technology_edpub112_11.pdf
- Rahschulte, T. (2001). CRM – The next challenge. CRM Forum/Insight Exec. http://www.insightexec.com/cgi-bin/library.cgi?action=detail&id=1354
- Rahschulte, T. (2001). e-Opportunities. PMNetwork: The Professional Magazine of Project Management Institute, 15(3), 26-31.
Other Scholarly Work
Subject Matter Expert Book Reviews
- Milosevic, D. Z., Martinell, R., & Waddell, J. M. (2007). Program management for improved business results. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
- Hiatt, J. (2006). ADKAR: A model for change in business, government and out community. Loveland, CO: Prosci Learning Center Publications.
- French, W. H. (2004). Human resources management (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Subject Matter Expert Research Instrument Review
- Miller, D. (2010, August). The Integration Box (TIB): An Individual and Institutional Faith, Religion, and Spirituality at Work Assessment Tool. Princeton Content Reviewer for instrument development
- BrainTrack: College and University Directory. (2010). What professors really think about online education. [http://www.braintrack.com/online-colleges/articles/what-professors-really-think-about-online-education]
- Foti, R. (2005). Public service. PMNetwork, 19(6), 30-38.
Contirubtor to Technical papers
- State of Oregon’s Department of Human Services. (2006, July). Business implementation and transition plan: A strategic, tactical, and operational plan to facilitate organizational change (Issue No. 2) Salem, OR: Department of Human Services.
- State of Oregon’s Department of Human Services. (2005, October). Business implementation and transition plan: A strategic, tactical, and operational plan to facilitate organizational change (Issue No. 1) Salem, OR: Department of Human Services.
Academic Conference Presentations & Published Proceedings
- Halley, R., Rahschulte, T., Sikima, S., & VandenHoek, J. (2012, June 25-28). A prized product: Pushing business education closer to the world’s need. Christian Business Faculty Association. British Columbia, Canada.
- Rahschulte, T. (2012, February 19-22). Making good decisions based on strategic planning and spend analytics. Next Level 2012 Thought Leadership. Miami, FL.
- Halley, R., VandenHoek, J., & Rahschulte, T. (2011, June 27-July 1). Same three letters . . . New inputs yield new processes. Christian Business Faculty Association. Mount Vernon, OH.
- Solan, A., Rennaker, M., & Rahschulte, T. (2011, Februar 9-12). Development of a fortuitous events perception instrument. International Self-Directed Learning Symposium. Cocoa Beach, FL.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, October 30). Leading global project teams: A review of barriers, challenges, and solutions. University of Portland and The Okantey Group’s Annual Global Leadership Conference, Portland, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., & Milhauser, K. (2010, October 9-12). Beyond the triple constraints: Nine elements defining project success today. PMI Global Congress. Washington, DC.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, November 11-14). The transformational nature of virtues in leadership. International Leadership Association. Prague.
- Rahschulte, T., Herrli, W., & Herrli, D. (2009, October 10-13). The most important aspect of project management today: Determining readiness for change. PMI Global Congress. Orlando, FL.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, November, 13-15). Facilitating leadership: A discussion of effective educational tools and tactics that develop 21st century leaders. International Leadership Association. Los Angeles, CA.
- Rahschulte, T., Herrli, W., & Herrli, D. (2008, October 18-22). States of change: An inquiry into the nature of organizational change. PMI Global Congress. Denver, CO.
- Gorlorwulu, J., & Rahschulte, T. (2008, August 14-16). Organizing for Transformational Development: What are the leadership and organizational requirements? Transformational Development Conference. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., & Hartsfield, M. (2008, August 5-8) Navigating complexity: Inductively determining how government business in the United States plans, leads, and sustains change. The Eighth Annual International Conference on Knowledge, Culture, and Change. Cambridge, UK.
- Rahschulte, T., & Longbotham, G. (2008, March 9-13). Facilitated resourcefulness. Autonomous Learning World Caucus. Oxford, UK.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, October 19). A guide to finishing your courses, passing your exams, and defending your dissertation without losing your mind. Higher Ground Leadership Summit. Durango, CO.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, October 20). Understanding organizational change: A dissertation review. Higher Ground Leadership Summit. Durango, CO.
- Rahschulte, T. (2006, January). Strategic HRD: Facilitating organizational change through individual performance. International Academy of Business and Public Administration. Orlando, FL.
Training Sessions, Workshops, Webinars, & Videos
- Rahschulte, T. (2012, October 2). Critical thinking for decision making. Oregon Executive Development Institute Leadership Symposium at DPSST. Salem, OR.
- Martinelli, R., & Rahschulte, T. (2012, May 22-23). Program management for improved business results. Program Management Academy Workshop. Portland, OR
- Rahschulte, T. (2012, April 24). Critical thinking for decision making. Oregon Executive Development Institute Leadership Symposium at DPSST. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2012, March 11-15). Effective leadership. Oregon Executive Development Institute. Sun River, OR.
- Martinelli, R., & Rahschulte, T. (2011). Insider tips for managing global project teams. Oshawa, ON: Multi-Media Publications, Inc.
- Martinelli, R., Petrick, I., & Rahschulte, T. (2011, November 10-11). Strategic roadmapping. Hollister, Chicago, IL.
- Rahschulte, T. (2011, July 19 and 21).Systems thinking. Oregon’s Aspiring Leadership Program. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2011, July 7, July 19). Two Series Webinar: Change is coming! Journyx.
- Rahschulte, T., & Martinelli, R. (2001, May 25, June 7, June 22). Three Series Webinar: Leading global project teams: The new leadership challenge. Multi-Media Oshawa, ON, Canada.
- Rahschulte, T., & Putnam, R. (2011, May 10-12). Organizational change management and decision making. Oregon Executive Development Institute’s Leadership Symposium at DPSST. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2011, March 13-18). Effective leadership. Oregon Executive Development Institute. Bend, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., Fish, J., King, B., & Anderson, S. (2011, March 9). Strategic planning in state government. Salem, OR.
- Martinelli, R., & Rahschulte, T. (2011, February 9-10). Program management for improved business results. Portland, OR
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, December 8). Measuring organizational readiness for change. Oregon State Hospital Business Transition Program. Salem OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, September 21). The practical value of perception theory and systems thinking. SSD’s Management’s Leadership Program. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, September 17). PM as agent of change: Integrating organizational change management and project management. Project Management Institute, Corvallis, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, April 29-30). Leading organizational change. Project Management Institute. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, March 14-19). Effective leadership. Oregon Executive Development Institute. Bend, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, January 20). Winning strategies for leading distributed project teams. Project Management Institute. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, November 2-14). Project management and organizational change. Technological Education Institute of Piraeus. Athens, Greece.
Invited Lectures & Guest Speaking Engagements
- Rahschulte, T. (2012, June 22). Demystifying Program Management Project Management Institute. Salem, Oregon.
- Rahschulte, T. (2011, April 21, 2011). Systems thinking: Aligning market needs and organizational output. Willamette University’s Atkinson Graduate School of Management, Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, December 1). Workforce trends that will help you stay ahead of the curve. American Society for Training and Development, Portland, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2010, August 10). Qualitative research: An investigation into grounded theory. George Fox University, Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, June 26). Global integration. George Fox University. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, April 16). Beyond the triple constraints: Increasing project management and organizational effectiveness through the application of readiness for change determinants. Program Management Forum. Beaverton, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, Arpil 14). The project manager as agent for change. Project Management Institute. Seattle, WA.
- Rahschulte, T. (2009, March 31). Leadership virtues for life. Medical Teams International. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., Herrli, W., & Herrli, D. (2008, December 4). States of change: An inquiry into the nature of organizational change. North Carolina Department of Revenue. Raleigh, NC.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, October 18). Leadership and the moderating affect of integrity. Luther Rice University. Lithonia, Georgia.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, September 25). Understanding organizational change and knowing what to do about it. City University. Seattle, Washington.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, September 18). Organizational change. Project Management Institute. Eugene, Oregon.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, September 16). Building readiness for change through communication: A project manager’s role. Project Management Institute. Portland, Oregon.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, June 6). Leading through change: Servant leaders as agents of change. George Fox University. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., & Herrli, W. (2008, May 6). Organizational change and the application of business transition management: Part II. National Association of State Chief Information Officers Project Managers Forum. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, March 25). The power of love in organizational life. Medical Teams International. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, February 26). Developing servants for the world. George Fox University. Portland, OR.
- Rahschulte, T., & Ricketson, R. (2008, February 14). Theories of leadership: A discussion of love as a construct of leadership effectiveness. George Fox University. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, February 11). Ways of knowing: An investigation into epistemology. George Fox University. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, January 31). Culture and acculturation: One in the world. George Fox University. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, January 8). Managing change in state government. State of Oregon Department of Human Services Child Welfare Executive Briefing. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2008, January 4). Love and leadership. George Fox University 2008 Executive leadership residency. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, November 29). Love and leadership. The Luther Rice University 2007 Evangelism and Leadership Program. Luther Rice University. Lithonia, GA.
- Rahschulte, T., & Herrli, W. (2007, November 6). Organizational change and the application of business transition management: Part I. National Association of State Chief Information Officers Project Managers Forum. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, September 22). Organizational change and business transition: What every manager needs to know. State of Oregon Child Welfare Strategic Systems Team Briefing. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, September 6). My calling to teach – why I do what I do as it relates to my faith. The 2007 George Fox University Auxiliary Luncheon. Newberg, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, August 23). Organizational change and business transition: What every manager needs to know. State of Oregon Secretary of State Executive Review. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2007, July 10). Organizational change and business transition: What every manager needs to know. State of Oregon Office of Payment and Recovery Management Strategy and Planning Symposium. Salem, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2006, August). Work: Where are the best places to spend time, energy, and life? International Leadership Studies Conference. Virginia Beach, VA.
- Rahschulte, T. & Rennaker, M. (2006, March). Autonomous learner as causal agent in fortuitous events. Autonomous Learner World Caucus. Oxford, UK.
- Rahschulte, T. (2004, June 25). Seeing HR. Human Resource Management Association. Portland, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2004/2005/2006). eHRM. Portland State University. Portland, OR.
- Rahschulte, T. (2003/2004/2005). Time management. State of Oregon Employment Department’s University. Salem, OR.
George Fox University, 7/07 – Present
Associate Professor: Career in academia started in 1999 as an adjunct professor of business at Thomas More College and then the University of Phoenix, Drexel University, and as a guest lecturer at Portland State University. Work at George Fox stated in 2007 and includes teaching courses including Strategic Management,Organizational Theory and Behavior, Law and Ethics, International Management, Leadership, Human Resources, and Managing Organizational Change.
Oregon State Government, 1/03 – Present
Principal Executive & Business Transition Architect: Responsible for leading enterprise wide change endeavors (providing expert advice on business transition methods, implementation planning, organizational diagnosis and change readiness assessment) at the Oregon Employment Department, Department of Human Services and Department of Administration Services.
Program Management Academy, 1/09 – Present
Executive Director & Partner: Help companies and individuals understand and effectively utilize the principles of strategic roadmapping, program management, and organizational change management to improve their business results.
Independent Contractor, 10/01 – 1/03
Managed business and technical project teams responsible for business research, new product opportunity analysis, web-based projects management, and business reengineering efforts.
Clerity, 08/00 – 12/01
Director of Integration Services and Product Management: Responsible for software product design and implementation for this venture-funded start-up. Designed methodology for a seamless and repeatable product implementation process and for departmental budgeting, client relations, product placement and delivery strategy.
3X Corporation, 03/99 – 08/00
Project Manager and Strategic Business Consultant: Responsible for business strategies practice for this regional consulting firm, defining the market approach, building the client engagement methodology, and managing client relationships. (Team from 3X helped in product strategies for Clerity.)
The Health Alliance, 06/97 – 03/99
Senior Consultant and Project Coordinator: Responsible for this six hospital healthcare system’s identification, design, and delivery of complex mergers and consolidation projects resultant in greater financial performance, increased customer satisfaction ratings, and quality of patient care. Further, was responsible for Patient Care Deliver program budget and capital allocation tracking and reporting for all six hospitals.
Student Loan Funding Corporation, 06/93 – 06/97
Senior Treasury Analyst: Responsible for management of all assets and liabilities for this $3 billion company. Daily activities included all investments and enterprise-wide cash flow management.
The following classes are those that I have designed and taught.
MBA 556 Transformational Leadership (MBA capstone): This course explores historic and contemporary leadership theories and models. Particular emphasis is given to evaluating leadership theories from a values perspective and determining ways they can be applied to the most current developments in organizational change strategies. Using this knowledge, students are presented with ways in which leadership can be conceptualized and applied to meet the requirements of today’s increasingly complex organizations.
MBA 534 Ethics & Legal Responsibilities: This course introduces practical legal issues that arise in the work environment and the ethical tools to understand and inform day-to-day activities in the workplace. Issues such as contracts, human resources, tort, intellectual property, competition and sales, the judicial system, white-collar crime, forms of organization, and appropriate communications are covered. The threads of ethical decision making, alternative dispute resolution, and Christian values run throughout the course and are covered specifically in several topics.
MBA 525 Global Environment: As world citizens we are increasingly aware of the globalization of markets, economies, strategies, and structures in our world. This class offers an overview of the issues encountered in transnational enterprises, with a concentration on understanding the nature of international business, and the development of cultural awareness. Students will understand the functional differences in transnational organizations and be able to identify key issues to be resolved in internationalizing, recognizing that these processes produce both positive and negative results.
MSPM 501 Introduction to Project Management: This course will introduce the practices that are fundamental to successful project management in a broad range of industry environments. You will be introduced to the knowledge and skills needed to be successful in this fast growing professional field including project planning, scheduling, managing cost, quality, and risk, while monitoring the influences that can affect project scope and eventual project success. The challenges of working with diverse teams of internal and external resources will be explored through activities and interaction with distributed teams. The goal of this course is to provide a sense of confidence in bringing projects to a successful close in any professional setting.
MSPM 515 Project Estimation and Cost Management: This course will provide an overview of project financial and economic principles involved in product and system development. It is intended to familiarize project managers with methods in project accounting, budgeting, cost estimation, financial management, design optimization, and economics.
MSPM 535 International Project Management: International Project Management examines the uniqueness and adaptations of project management when operating in an international context. The course investigates the nature of international projects, including the management of risk, quality and outsourcing, and people issues including the management of international and virtual teams.
DBA 702 International Management: This course encourages and facilitates the study of major issues facing today's international managers. Students and faculty engage in discourse relative to national differences, ethics of globalization, environmental economics, and the implications each of these have on business management of strategy, structure, and operations.
DBA 703 Organizational Theory: A doctoral level survey of major theoretical perspectives required for understanding, researching, and developing organizations. Topics will include classical management theories, human relations and human resources approaches, systems perspectives, organizational cultural studies, and critical, feminist, and postmodern theories. Emphasis is placed on understanding organization theories for the purpose of improving the design, culture, and effectiveness of modern organizations.
DBA 708 Human Resource Development & High Performance Organizations: This course focuses on aspects of human resources (HR), human resource management (HRM), strategic human resource management (SHRM), and human resource development (HRD). As such, activities relating to HR, HRM, and HRD (including training and developing, organizational change, performance management, organizational learning) will be investigated. Further, implications of HR such as leader/follower dyadic relationships, motivation, and variances in localization and globalization as they relate to high performance organizations (HPOs) will too be investigated.
DBA 709 Knowledge Management & Learning Organizations: An organization's ability to create and successfully leverage knowledge-based assets to plan for opportunities and problem solve in times of rapid change is a key element of its strategic health. Knowledge management brings together information content and the contexts in which it is created, organized, distributed, accessed, and used in order to deploy organizational practices and processes to increase an organization's return on its knowledge capital. This course explores the means to capture and promote relevant information and knowledge within an organization, examine the meaning and purpose of information and knowledge resources and how they contribute to decision making and problem solving, and understand how best to manage the intellectual assets of the organization.
DBA 714 Crisis Management: This course incorporates empirical organizational research, review, analysis, and assessment of key change, risk, and crisis issues in selected business, nonprofit, governmental, and nongovernmental scenarios and contexts as applied to management practice. Major course activities include an annotated bibliography (or literature review) of related and current sources sufficient to describe the most recent scholarship in the area of inquiry and a scholarly paper that will be presented to other course participants and submitted for publication.
DBA 717 Organizational Change Management: This course explores theories and practices of organizational change. As such, activities relating to organizational diagnosis, change management, performance and outcome management, and leadership strategies necessary to identify and affect the core of the organization will be investigated. Further, human motivation, organizational design, and other implications of organizational change management will too be investigated. The primary aim here is to learn about effective aspects of change content, context, and process relative to organizations, groups, and individuals.