Style Guide D-L

D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L

Hint: Use [Ctrl] + [F] to quickly find a word or phrase within this page.



These examples are all lowercase: cha-cha, waltz, polka, tango, fox-trot, salsa, two-step, lancers, cotillion, bergomask.


Em dashes (-) are used to set off ideas. En dashes (-) are used to separate dates, times, months, years, etc.Use one space on either side of the em dash.


Always use numerals. Separate ranges of dates with an en dash: Monday-Friday, Sept. 9-Oct. 2.

Ordinal numbers (16th, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) are not to be used with dates. See also " months," " decades," and " years."


Do not capitalize unless used as a title preceding a person's name.

dean's list



When including the century: 1890s (no apostrophe); when abbreviated: '90s.

degrees conferred by George Fox

Example: Jane Doe received a bachelor of arts in economics from George Fox University.

BA/bachelor of arts/bachelor's [degree]
BS/bachelor of science/bachelor's [degree]

George Fox University Undergraduate Degrees (do not capitalize unless name includes a proper noun)
accounting (BA)
arts administration (BA) 
biblical studies (BA)
biochemistry (BS)
biology (BS), with concentrations in cell and molecular biology, ecology and field biology, general biology and systems and structural biology
business administration (BA)
chemistry (BS)
Christian ministries, with concentrations in church recreation, educational ministry, missions, youth ministry (BA)
cinematic arts, with concentrations in production, audio production, multimedia/animation, journalism, film studies (BA)
cognitive science (BS)
communication arts (BA)
computer science (BS)
economics (BA)
elementary education (BS)
engineering, with concentrations in electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, biomedical engineering (BS)
English (BA)
exercise science (BS)
finance (BA)
graphic design (BA)
health and human performance, with concentrations in fitness management, health preteaching, physical education preteaching (BS)
history (BA)
illustration (BA)
information systems (BS)
interdisciplinary studies (BA or BS)
interior design (BA)
management (BA)
marketing (BA)
mathematics (BS)
music, with concentrations in performance, preteaching, composition, general (BA)
music education (BA)
nursing (BS)
organizational communication (BA)
philosophy (BA)
politics (BA)
psychology (BS or BA)
social work (BS)
sociology, with concentrations in community and families, global and cultural studies, social justice and inequality (BA)
studio art (BA)
Spanish (BA)
theatre (BA)

Degree Completion Undergraduate Degrees
elementary education degree completion (BS)
health administration (BA)
management and organizational leadership (BA)
project management (BS)
social and behavioral studies (BA)

Graduate Degrees

Master of Business Administration (full time)
Master of Business Administration (part time)
Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Master of Arts in School Counseling
Education Specialist in School Psychology
Master of Arts in Marriage, Couple and Family Counseling: Certificate In Marriage, Couple and Family Counseling
Doctor of Psychology
Master of Arts in Teaching (Full time/Part time)
Master of Education
Doctor of Education
Doctor of Business Administration

Portland Seminary Degrees
Master of Arts in Ministry with a Specialization
Master of Arts in Theological Studies
Master of Divinity
Master of Arts in Spiritual Direction
Doctor of Ministry in Leadership and Spiritual Formation
Doctor of Ministry in Leadership and Global Perspectives
Doctor of Ministry in Semiotics, Church & Culture 

Degree abbreviations
DBA/doctor of business administration/doctorate
DMin/doctor of ministry/doctorate
EdD/doctor of education/doctorate
EdS/education specialist
MA/master of arts, master's [degree]
MAT/master of arts in teaching [degree]
MATS/master of arts (theological studies)
MBA/master of business administration/master's [degree]
MDiv/master of divinity/master's [degree]
MEd/master of education/master's [degree]
MSW/master of social work [degree]
PsyD/doctor of psychology [degree]/doctorate/doctoral degree

graduate licenses and endorsements:
Professional Administrative License (formerly Continuing Administrative License)
Continuing Teaching License
Preliminary Administrative License (formerly Initial Administrative License)
ESOL Endorsement
Reading Endorsement
Special Education Endorsement

deity pronouns

Lowercase (he, him, his, thee, thou).The Bible itself supports lowercase usage in most translations.

deity titles

Capitalize. Examples: Christ, Father, God, Son, Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, King of Kings, Lamb of God, the Logos/Word, the Lord, Prince of Peace, the Savior, Son of God, the Third Person (of the Trinity).


See "Academic Departments"


Lowercase north, south, etc., except when referring to a large geographic region (the North, the East Coast, the Midwest, Southern California). Retain periods in directional abbreviations: S.E., E.


(adj.) Use with the word degree: She earned her doctoral degree at George Fox University. See also " academic degrees" and " degrees conferred by George Fox." Doctorate
(noun) Do not add the word degree after doctorate: She earned her doctorate at George Fox University. Not doctorate of psychology degree. See also "academic degrees" and "degrees conferred by George Fox."


See " money."

Duke Athletic Center

This 14,000-square-foot, three-story facility – located on the back side of Stoffer Family Stadium – includes coaches’ offices, a locker room, an athletic training room, a classroom and a terrace.

Duke Atrium

The atrium in the Stevens Center is to be referred to as the Duke Atrium.



The employee e-newsletter. In italics.

Educational Foundations and Leadership (EDFL)

Umbrella division for graduate-level educational licenses and endorsements, as well as the doctor of education and master of education degrees.


See " computer terms."

email addresses

George Fox email addresses in university publications should follow the following format for staff and faculty: First letter of first name followed by the first seven letters of last name. Exception: business cards include full last name.


A retired female professor may earn emerita status: Professor Emerita Jane Doe (capitalized preceding).


A retired male professor may earn emeritus status: John Doe, professor emeritus of math (lowercase after name). Plural is professors emeriti. George Fox recently added the status of staff emeritus/emerita.


English as a Second Language Program

Courses for international students to develop speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills in the English language in order to prepare them to enter into academic life at George Fox. Capitalize formal name of program, but lowercase when used as a subject or course name. Abbreviate as ESL.

English to Speakers of Other Languages Program (ESOL)

Graduate program. Capitalize formal name of program, but lowercase when used as a subject or course name.

et al./et alii (and others)

The period is needed when using the abbreviation.

exempli gratia/e.g.

This abbreviation is usually used in parenthetical phrases, where it is punctuated with periods and set off with commas (e.g., ).



Plural of faculty.

faculty member

Use when referring to an individual/group of individuals numbering less than the entire faculty.


Free Application for Federal Student Aid

fall, fall semester

Lowercase all seasons.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA)

Legislation which regulates the use of personal information and student records.

Family Weekend (annual event)

A program held on the Newberg campus for parents and their George Fox students.


Hyphenated when used as a noun or as an adjective that modifies a noun that follows it.


Student lounge located in the basement of the Klages Center.


The university's Teaching and Learning Environment is the learning management system used by teachers and students to provide options for online classroom interaction.


Hyphenate: one-fourth


Use freshman as an adjective.
Example: All freshman (Not freshmen) students receive computers.


See " Religious Society of Friends."

Friends Pacific Academy

Name of George Fox University predecessor. Founded in 1885, the academy operated for 44 years, closing in 1929. During that time, college-level classes were added in 1891 with the establishment of Pacific College.


Full-time equivalency.

full-time (adj.)

Hyphenate when used as an adjective. Example: Only full-time employees receive benefits.

full time (adv.)

No hyphen when used as an adverb. Example: I attend school full time.

fundraiser (n.)

Refers to an event. One word

fundraiser/ing (adj.)

fundraising (v.)



General equivalency diploma/General Educational Development.


Genesis programs are one-day summer orientation programs that allow students and families to begin the orientation process at George Fox University

Portland Seminary

George Fox University

Abbreviation is George Fox, acceptable in running text on second reference only, but not in headlines. George Fox is acceptable in informal usage on second reference, but Fox used alone is not acceptable. History: Friends Pacific Academy 1885 Pacific College 1891 George Fox College 1949 George Fox University 1996


Refer to females in college as women; in high school, as girls.




Abbreviation for grade point average. Acceptable even on first reference.


Use roman face, capital letters, with no quotation marks: She received an A in the course.

graduate (v.)

Use the active voice: She graduated from George Fox University. The passive voice, "was graduated," is archaic.


half-time (adj.)

Hyphenate when used as an adjective. Example: She is a half-time employee.

half time (adv.)

No hyphen when used as an adverb. Example: I work half time.

Hess Creek Canyon

Name given to the area where Hess Creek runs through the George Fox campus.

highway designations

state Highway 99, Interstate Highway 5, Interstate 5, I-5 (spell out on first reference).


Ash Wednesday, Christmas (Eve), Columbus Day, D-Day, Easter Day or Easter Sunday, Father's Day, Good Friday, Groundhog Day, Halloween or All Hallow's Eve, Holy Saturday, Holy Week, Independence Day or Fourth of July or July Fourth, Labor Day, Lent, Lincoln's Birthday, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Maundy Thursday, Memorial Day, Mother's Day, New Year's Eve, Pentecost, Presidents Day*, Veterans* Day (*note no apostrophe).


Lowercase in running text. Capitalize in headline or as specific event: Homecoming 2018.

honorary doctorate

A person with an honorary doctorate is not called Dr.


Lowercase. Example: He graduated with honors.

honors convocation

A formal academic event held at the beginning of the fall semester that officially launches each school year.

hooding ceremony

Event held by graduate departments at which students who earn doctoral degrees are awarded hoods, and master's degree students receive diplomas.

Hoover-Hatfield Library

Located in the Hoover Academic Building, the library features Hoover memorabilia from the university's archives, the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library, and Senator Mark Hatfield's personal collection of memorabilia.

hyphens (-)

As a general rule, all compound modifiers and numbers should be hyphenated. Examples: fast-sailing ship, pre-1900. Exception: No hyphen needed with adverbs ending in -ly, e.g. highly trained.


ID card

The identification card issued to George Fox students, faculty, and staff.

id est, i.e. (that is)

Set off with comma in sentence or parenthetical phrase.


Immigration and Naturalization Service


International Baccalaureate (IB)

A program offering college-level work and accepted at George Fox as transfer credits.


See " composition titles."



George Fox's alumni magazine.


See " names."


There is no e after the g.

Juniors Abroad

Three-week overseas course option during May and June for George Fox students in their junior year.


Kershner Lecture Hall

A room (Hoover 105) in the Hoover Academic Building named after Dr. Howard Kershner.


George Fox's student radio station, discontinued in 2019.


Lowercase kingdom of God, etc.



Name of George Fox University yearbook until 2013. Title is in italics.

letters as letters

Italicize letters when used alone (See also " grades" and " words as words"). Example: The word is missing an s.

LIBA 100

Freshman seminar course (replaced Freshman Seminar)


George Fox University alumni newspaper (no longer published). References to title are in italics.